Ecologia de Phthiraptera, Siphonaptera e Acari (Ixodidae) de pequenos roedores e marsupiais do Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

From October 2005 to October 2007, rodents and marsupials were captured at Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, RJ. This research aimed to characterize the vegetation concerning the study area; to check the existence of a correlation between mesoclimate and microclimate in relation to the presen...

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Publication Date:2008
Main Author: Amaral, Heloiza Helena de Oliveira Morelli
Advisor: Carvalho, Acacio Geraldo de lattes
Co-advisor: Freire, Nicolau Mau?s Serra lattes
Document type: Doctoral thesis
Language:por
Published: Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro
Program: Programa de P?s-Gradua??o em Ci?ncias Ambientais e Florestais
Department: Instituto de Florestas
Portuguese subjects:
English subjects:
Knowledgement areas:
Online Access:https://tede.ufrrj.br/jspui/handle/tede/488
Citation:AMARAL, Heloiza Helena de Oliveira Morelli. Ecologia de Phthiraptera, Siphonaptera e Acari (Ixodidae) de pequenos roedores e marsupiais do Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. 2008. 125 f. Tese (Doutorado em Ci?ncias Ambientais e Florestais). Instituto de Florestas, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Serop?dica, RJ, 2008.
Portuguese abstract:No per?odo de outubro de 2005 at? outubro de 2007, foram capturados roedores e marsupiais no Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca, Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar a vegeta??o da ?rea de estudo; verificar se existe correla??o entre mesoclima e microclima com rela??o ? presen?a de parasitos e hospedeiros; identificar a din?mica das popula??es de hospedeiros e parasitos ao longo das esta??es do ano e verificar a estratifica??o da fauna de pequenos roedores e marsupiais e da fauna ectoparasit?ria. Foram marcados seis pontos de captura, em diferentes cotas. Utilizou-se tr?s tipos de armadilhas, Sherman. Tomahowk e Francesinha, com diferentes iscas e dispostas em cinco transectos. Capturou-se 160 mam?feros, sendo 96 esp?cimes de marsupiais, das esp?cies: Didelphis aurita, Marmosops incanus, Micoureus paraguayanus, Metachirus nudicaudatus, Monodelphis americana e Philander frenatus, e 64 de roedores, das esp?cies: Akodon cursor, Oligoryzomys nigripes, Rattus norvergicus, Rattus rattus, Guerlinguetus ingrami, Sphigurus villosus,. A vegeta??o presente nas ?reas de coleta (nas seis cotas pesquisadas) ? composta por vegeta??o secund?ria em diferentes est?gios de regenera??o. As ?reas situadas nas cotas 150, 200, 300 e 400 metros podem ser classificadas como ?reas que est?o em est?gio de inicial a m?dio de regenera??o, enquanto, as ?reas situadas nas cotas 500 e 600 metros a classifica??o ? de ?reas em est?gio de m?dio a avan?ado de regenera??o. A correla??o entre o ambiente (umidade relativa do ar, temperatura e ?ndice pluviom?trico) e os ectoparasitas s? foi significativa para os carrapatos, demonstrando que, quanto maior a temperatura, maior ? o n?mero de carrapatos. Observou-se que nos meses de julho e agosto (meses mais secos) e nos meses de dezembro, janeiro e fevereiro (mais quentes) o n?mero de animais capturados ? muito baixo. A esp?cie dominante ? D. aurita (35%). Coletou-se 370 esp?cimes de ectoparasitas, sendo: 162 pulgas, 105 carrapatos e 103 piolhos. Os parasitos encontrados foram: Siphonaptera: Adoratopsylla (Adoratopsylla) antiquorum ronnai, Adoratopsylla (Tritopsylla) intermedia intermedia, Polygenis (Polygenis) occidentalis occidentalis, Polygenis (Polygenis) rimatus, Polygenis (Polygenis) steganus, Polygenis (Neopolygenis) atopus, Ctenocephalidae felis felis; Acari (Ixodidae): Amblyomma geayi, Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma scutatum, Amblyomma spp., Ixodes amarali, Ixodes auritulus, Ixodes didelphidis, Ixodes loricatus, Ixodes luciae, Ixodes spp.; Phthiraptera: Poliplax spinulosa, Hoplopleura sciuricola, Eutrichophilus minor e Eutrichophilus cercolabes. As pulgas obtiveram o maior coeficiente de preval?ncia (28,13%) e o maior ?ndice de abund?ncia (1,01 pulga/hospedeiro). Os piolhos apresentaram a maior intensidade m?dia de parasitismo (17,17 piolhos/hospedeiro). A correla??o entre o n?mero de roedores capturados e as cotas n?o foi significativa (rs = 0,23, p = 0,6) e para os marsupiais a correla??o foi negativa e tamb?m n?o significativa (rs = -0,6, p = 0,2). Polygenis (P.) occidentalis occidentalis foi encontrada com a maior freq??ncia (20,8%) entre os roedores e em rela??o aos marsupiais, Adoratopsylla (T.) intermedia intermedia foi a mais freq?ente (77,7%). E. cercolabes apresentou a maior freq??ncia (91,5%) entre os piolhos; entre os carrapatos a maior freq??ncia foi de Ixodes loricatus.
English abstract:From October 2005 to October 2007, rodents and marsupials were captured at Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, RJ. This research aimed to characterize the vegetation concerning the study area; to check the existence of a correlation between mesoclimate and microclimate in relation to the presence of parasites and hosts; to identify the dynamics of the hosts and parasites population throughout the seasons and verify the stratification of the small rodents and marsupials fauna as well as the ectoparasitarian fauna. Six spaces of capture were highlighted, in different levels of height. Three types of traps were used, Sherman, Tomahowk and Francesinha, with different baits distributed in five transects. A hundred and sixty mammals were captured, 96 specimens of marsupials and 64 of rodents from the following species: Akodon cursor, Oligoryzomys nigripes, Rattus norvergicus, Rattus rattus, Guerlinguetus ingrami, Sphigurus villosus, Didelphis aurita, Marmosops incanus, Micoureus paraguayanus, Metachirus nudicaudatus, Monodelphis americana and Philander frenatus. It was possible to observe that in hotter (July and August) and drier (December, January and February) months, the number of animals captured is much lower. The vegetation present in the collection areas (in the six levels researched) is composed by secondary vegetation in different stages of regeneration. The areas placed in levels 150, 200, 300 and 400 m can be classified as areas at initial and medium stage of regeneration, while, the areas situated in levels 500 and 600 m the classification is of areas at medium to advanced stage of regeneration. The correlation between the environment (relative humidity, temperature and pluviometric index) and the ectoparasites was only significant to the ticks, showing that, the higher the temperature, the higher is the number of ticks. The dominant species is D. aurita (35%). Three hundred and seventy specimens of ectoparasites were collected: 162 fleas, 105 ticks and 103 lice. The parasites found were: Siphonaptera: Adoratopsylla (Adoratopsylla) antiquorum ronnai, Adoratopsylla (Tritopsylla) intermedia intermedia, Polygenis (Polygenis) occidentalis occidentalis, Polygenis (Polygenis) rimatus, Polygenis (Polygenis) steganus, Polygenis (Neopolygenis) atopus, Ctenocephalidae felis felis, Acari (Ixodidae): Amblyomma geayi, Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma scutatum, Amblyomma spp., Ixodes amarali, Ixodes auritulus, Ixodes didelphidis, Ixodes loricatus, Ixodes luciae, Ixodes spp., Phthiraptera: Poliplax spinulosa, Hoplopleura sciuricola, Eutrichophilus minor and Eutrichophilus cercolabes. The siphonapterus obtained the highest prevalence coefficient (28,13%) and the highest abundance index (1,01 flea/host). The phthirapters presented the highest mean intensity of parasitism (17,17 lice/host). The correlation between the numbers of rodents captured and the levels was not significant (rs = 0,23, p = 0,6) and for the marsupials the correlation was negative and also not significant (rs = -0,6, p = 0,2). Polygenis (P.) occidentalis occidentalis was found at the highest frequency (20,8%) among the rodents and in relation to the marsupials, Adoratopsylla (T.) intermedia intermedia was the most frequent (77,7%). E. cercolabes presented the highest frequency (91,5%) among lice; among ticks the highest frequency was of Ixodes loricatus.